# Kurtosis

Kurtosis is a statistical measure of the "tailedness" of the probability distribution of a real-life random variable in probability theory and statistics. Kurtosis defines the form of a probability distribution like skewness, and there are various methods to calculate it for a theory distribution and estimate it from a population sample. Different kurtosis measures may be interpreted differently.

The standard measure of a kurtosis distribution derived from Karl Pearson[1] is a scaled-up version of the 4th distribution moment. This number is linked to the distribution's tail rather than its height, so a "peawedness" characterization is false. Higher kurtosis is the more excellent end of the anomalies (or outliers) rather than the data's configuration close to the average for this variable.

Any regular univariate distribution is kurtosis 3. The kurtosis of allocation is generally contrasted with this value. Distributions under kurtosis three are said to be platycurtic, even though this does not mean a "flat-topped" distribution, as is often claimed. Instead, it implies that the distribution creates fewer and less extreme outliers than the standard distribution. The uniform distribution, which generates no outliers, is an example of a platycurtic distribution. Kurtosis distributions above three are considered leptokurtic.

The Laplace distribution, which has slopes that reach zero asymptotically more quickly than gauze and thus produces more outliers than a normal distribution, is an example of a leptokurtic distribution. The excess kurtosis, which describes the kurtosis minus 3, is often used to equate the typically normal distribution in a modified variant of Pearson's kurtosis.

**Types of Kurtosis**

The kurtosis can be displayed by a collection of data in three groups. The regular normal distribution, or the bell curve, is compared to all kurtosis measures.

A mesokurtic distribution is the first category of kurtosis. The kurtosis statistics of that distribution are similar to that of a regular distribution, which means that a distribution's extreme value is identical to the average.

A leptokurtic distribution is the second type. Any leptokurtic distribution has a larger kurtosis than a mesokurtic. The distribution's characteristics are one with long tails (outliers), the prefix "lepto- '' means "skinny," making it easier for people to remember the form of a leptokurtic distribution.

The "skinniness" which results from the outliers extends the horizontal axis of the histogram graph so that the bulk of the data appears in an enclosed ("skinny") vertical range. So leptokurtic distributions are often described as "concentrated to the mean." Still, the most important question (especially for investors) is that often extreme outliers establish that appearance of 'concentration.' The T-distributions with limited degrees of freedom are examples of leptokurtic distributions.

A platykurtic distribution is the final form of distribution. The prefix of "platy-" means "broad," which is supposed to represent a short and wide-looking peak, but that is a historical mistake. These forms are short tails and have no outskirts.

Uniform distributes have large peaks and are platykurtic, but even the beta-dimensional distribution (0.5,1) has a pointed edge. The explanation for both of these distributions is that their extreme values are smaller than the normal distribution. Investors have reliable and consistent multifunctional distributions of returns, in the sense that extreme outer) returns are rarely available (if ever).

**What is the massive excess kurtosis?**

The term kurtosis excess refers to a metric used for statistics and probability theory, which compares the normally distributed kurtosis coefficient. Kurtosis is a mathematical measure to characterize the size of a distribution's tails.

Excess kurtosis helps to assess how much risk a particular investment entails. The study indicates that a probabilistically normal distribution of results shows a greater likelihood of producing an extreme effect or benefit from the case in question.

In finance and, more precisely, risk management, excess kurtosis is a required method. Any occurrence in question is vulnerable to extreme effects with severe kurtosis. When analyzing historical returns from a single stock or portfolio, it is a significant factor.

The higher the kurtosis coefficient, the more likely the return graph will be extremely big or extremely small. The higher the kurtosis coefficient is above the average level. Stock prices with higher probability on the positive or negative side of the mean closing price of outliers can be said to positively or negatively skew that can be attributed to kurtosis.