THEME & focus
January 2021
The five major spy rings

Cambridge five
A spy ring in the United Kingdom that transmitted intelligence to the Soviet Union during World War II, the Cambridge Spy Ring was active from the 1930s to at least the beginning of the 1950s. None were ever prosecuted for espionage by any of the recognized participants. From the 1950s on, the number and membership of the ring grew steadily.

In 1951, following Donald Maclean and Guy Burgess's unexpected flight to the Soviet Union through the cryptonym Hicks, the general public first became aware of the plot. The crowd was made aware of it. Harold "Kim" Philby (cryptonyms Sonny, Stanley), who left the nation in 1963, was instantly accused. In the wake of Philby, British intelligence received Anthony Blunt's confessions (cryptonyms: Tony, Johnson) and, later, John Cairncross (cryptonym: Liszt), the final two in a party of five, who came to be seen.

For several years they had been involved secretly: Blunt in 1979 and Cairncross in 1990. The Cambridge Four moniker progressed to the Cambridge Five in time. They were reportedly called the Glorious Five in the innermost circles of the K.G.B.

The word 'Cambridge' refers to the group's recruitment during its schooling at Cambridge University in the 1930s. The debate is about the precise timing of Soviet Intelligence recruiting. Before they were graduates, Blunt said they were not hired as officers. A Trinity College college fellow, Blunt was a skilled spotter and a recruitment fellow for a number of years, older than Burgess, Maclean, and Philby.

All five of them agreed that Soviet Communism's Marxism–Leninism was the only possible political structure and, in particular, the best defense against the rise of fascism. Both have proceeded successfully in the British government departments. They gave the Soviet Union a lot of intelligence so that the K.G.B. was skeptical that some were fake. The demoralizing impact of their slow unmasking on the British Establishment and the mis-confidence in British security caused in the United States was maybe just as significant as their intelligence.

Portland Spy Ring
In England from the late 1950s to 1961, the Portland Spy Ring was a Soviet spy ring operating until British intelligence forces arrested the network's nucleus. It is one of the most famous resident spies being used without their embassy in a foreign country. Its members included the Americans Morris and Lona Cohen (known as Peter and Helen Kroger), Harry Houghton, Ethel Gee, Gordon Lonsdal (real: Konon Molody).

Houghton and Gee have been incarcerated for 15 years. In 1970, they were released and married the next year.

Condemnation of the Krogers (Cohens) for 20 years. They were succeeded by Gerald Brooke, a British man who was imprisoned by the Soviets, in 1969. The Soviets confirmed that they were spies as part of the process.

More than five detained by Professor Christopher Andrew, they counted the ring, likely including employees of the Russian and Polish Embassies who would be immune from prosecutions.[citation necessary]. He indicates that more senior personnel of the Admiralty Research Institution who were not detected may have engaged in the ring. Houghton was a low-ranking clerk, and Gee, a secretary, whose context the papers they encountered may not have understood.

The Ware Group
The Ware Group was a clandestine organization, first run by Harold Ware (1889–1935) and then by Whittaker Chambers (1901–1961) after Ware's accidental death on 13 August 1935, among U.S. government officials in the 30s. The Ware Group was a covert U.S. Communist party agent.

Under the auspices of J, Harold Ware formed this party. Summer of 1933 in Peters. In Washington, D.C., Ware was an agent of the Communist Party (C.P.) working for the federal government.

A meeting of eight members, John Abt, Henry Collins, Alger Hiss, Victor Perlo, Lee Pressman, Nathaniel Weyl, and Nathan Witt, was held in late 1933. The first established Ware Party was officially formed.

At the outset, Peters ordered the party to make "exceptional money sacrifices" research Marxist philosophy and party policy, maintain "strictest secrecy," and access "any government documents" (Known participants eventually protested that it was just a research party comprising Marxists.)

The Silvermaster File
A 162 volume compendium of approximately 26,000 pages of the Bureau's report on the federal government's information infiltration during the Cold War is the Silvermaster file of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation. The paper comprises about 26,000 pages.

They are often referred to as the Bentley File or Gregory file beginning in 1945 on the claims of faulty Soviet Courier Elizabeth Bentley ("Myrna"; Umnitsa: "Clever Girl") ("Gregory" was the F.B.I. code name for Bentley).

The file is named after Nathan Gregory Silvermaster from the War Development Board, who Bentley has appointed as the head of the undergrowth communist network known as the Silvermaster Party (Venona cover names Pel, Pal, "Paul;" Robert."

Bentley's initial hopes for dueling and compiling the Silvermaster's archives to punish Soviet agents were destroyed when the U.S.S.R. immediately shut down its activities. Its identity unwittingly slipped out.

In conjunction with other classified evidence, including the Venona intercepts, the Silvermaster file provided American intelligence to identify a variety of Soviet agents beyond natural means. The status of limitations was also concise for spy prosecution. This was a big part of McCarthyism's history. The Bentley dual agent's career would have helped the U.S. uncover spies and risk this as a permanent source of intelligence without jeopardizing Venona.

The Atomic Spies
The spies or atomic spies were known to have been unlawfully leaked to the Soviet Union during the Second World War and Early Cold War to citizens in the United States, UK, and Canada regarding the development or construction of nuclear bombs. Precisely what was given, and why everyone gave it, is still a question of wisdom. Any of the suspects or government witnesses who were arrested had brief testimonials or confessions, which they later remembered or said were made. Their job is the most famous and well-documented case of nuclear spying in nuclear weapons history. Many atomic scientists have wished to exchange knowledge with the science establishment around the country, but the United States government strongly shocked this idea.

The Venona Project, intercepting and encoding Soviet intelligence reports sent during and after World War II, clarified the spying work and provided hints to the identification of many Agents, several of them never found at Los Alamos and elsewhere. These details were available to the government in the 1950's cases but were not available in court because they were strongly rated. Historians also learned that papers from the Soviet archives released to historians briefly after the dissolution of the Soviet Union held more detail about individual spies.
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From the TV series "The Spy"
Starring: Sacha Baron Cohen
From the movie "Red Sparrow"
Starring: Jennifer Lawrence
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